We all have seen our grandparents and at times even our parents telling us about how they used to live back then. They tell us about their living, the education system, about culture, about agriculture methods used back then, about their dressing, about society and a lot more. And here we start comparing it with today’s scenario and find it all different. The education system is turned from teaching students under the shade of tree to teaching them through online lectures inside their houses. Back then, people used to live in a joint family and all the members used to abide by the decision of senior most member, now majority of population lives in nuclear families and all have freedom to decide on their own. Now, science has developed a lot and has brought up different machines for different purposes. The work that used to be done by hands before is done by machines now. If you see around yourself, a lot has been changed and changing. And this change, this development is what we call “modernisation”.
What is modernisation?
If, we talk about modernisation in terms of its definition, then modernisation is a term used to define change in the society which transforms it from traditional to modern. Modernisation promotes western model change, urbanisation, industrialisation and globalisation. It is spreading the ideas of western world and people following them happily. Urbanisation is the shift of population from rural areas to urban society. Industrialisation transforms the society from agrarian to industrial one. And globalisation is integration of the world, that is spread of the information, technology, jobs, products and ideas across national borders. Modernisation not only brings development in the society but also broadens the thinking of population. It provides number of opportunities and new ideas to people.
History of Modernisation-
The basic principle of modernisation was derived from the “idea of progress” whose objective was that people themselves can develop and change their society. For the evolution of society, Emile Durkheim gave a concept of functionalism which promotes solidarity and stability, it stresses the interdependence of institutions of a society and their interaction in maintaining cultural and social unity. The theory of modernisation emerged in late 19th century and was popular among scholars in mid 20century. Back then, it was thought that maintaining tradition for the tradition’s sake was thought to be harmful in the progress and development of society. Academically, different scholars promoted this theory. ‘W.W. Rostow’ in 1960 in “The stages of economic growth: A non communist manifesto” concentrates on the economic side of modernisation trying to show factors needed for country to reach the path of modernisation. In 1959, David Apter said, economic development sets off a series of profound social changes that together helps in democracy. ‘David Mc Clelland’ in “The achieving society, 1967” argued that modernisation cannot happen untill a given society values innovation, striving for improvement and enterpreneurship. ‘Inkeles’ in “Becoming Modern, 1967” created a model of modern personality which needs to be independent, active, interested in public policies and cultural matters, open for new experiences, rational and being able to create long term plans for future. Different people had different meaning of modernisation but their aim was one, the development of society from traditional to modern.
Modernisation has developed the society overall but has mojorly affected three parts , i.e., agriculture, edication and politics. Modernisation in different sectors of society:-
1.Modernisation in agriculture:-
The main objective of modernisation in agriculture is to transform agranian sector of society from labour based to technology based. In India, agriculture is a huge sector. It provides emlpoyement to more than half of the population contributes to GDP of our country in more than 25%. The objectives of modernisation in agriculture are- • Efficiency of production • Reduction of negative external effects of methods of agriculture. (like, irrigation based only upon rain can destroy all the crop if in that year rainfall was not up to the needs) • there should not be any threat to environment and well being of animals. • ensuring food security • growth in profit from farms • sustainable development of resources.
New technologies that came up with modernisation in agriculture are though cost effective but also are in conformity with natural climatic regime of country. It is relevant for rain fed areas. Also for genetic improvement for better seeds and yeilds. Plans for food security which are doubling food production are also distributing food grains to people below poverty line and increasing emlpoyement and income of agranian society. They also plan for conservation of land, water and biological resources and develop minor irrigation. Traditional farming back then used to include labour for tilling, sowing and harvesting. Irrigation majorly used to depend upon rain and seeds were not used to be modern. Modernisation has mechanised equipment for irrigation, tilling and harvesting. And uses hybrid seeds. Traditionally land used to be small and disconnected in ownerships of individuals. Now, after modernisation lands are being consolidated into one large farm. Subsidies are provided more in modern agriculture on energy, irrigation, seeds and fertilisers. Even though modernisation has made agriculture so much easy and has made it so much profitable, there is one disadvantage of modernisation, that is traditional farming used to produce high quality of product. Chemicals in fertilisers do wipe out pests and herbs but also prove harmful to environment and land.
2.Modernisation in education:-
Modernisation in education has developed the idea of privatisation to most of the educational institutions. Even though we have schools and universities at government level but to talk crystal clear, it is private institutions which provide with better quality of education. They not only develop a person’s knowledge but also develop them artistically and creatively. Their objective is to develop a person overall in every field. Self finance institutions are the result of modernisation. They gives students an opportunity to study along with work. And this system has helped a lot of students who were not able to pay fee without working. Modernisation has made best impact for an increase in enrollment of girls. There have been rise of female teachers in the educational institutions. Also, the improvement in infrastructures of institutions can also be seen. Clean toilets and good drinking water facilities are almost in every educational institution. Modernisation has also brought up social change, change in way of thinking, dressing, transportation and communication for the purpose of education. It has evolved not only technology but also new faculties like computer science, information technology (IT), etc. Which is in demand. This is also the great impact of modernisation in education. Though modernisation has helped improving education system a lot but in some areas, it has proved to be negative. After modernisation in education system, competition, stress and fatigue has increased among students. Due to online transfer of knowledge, people abuse of internet by not using it in right way. Modern education has increased nuclear families and also most dangerous negative impact of modernisation in education, ‘suicide’ . Modernisation in education is need to be applied after good research and in a way that can help making society truly educated.
3.Modernisation in politics:-
Modernisation in politics refers to change in political culture and political institutions which when combined together can give performance from less developed societies. Political modernisation cannot to defined in few words precisely but there are dimensions of political modernisation, that is, psychological, intellectual, social and economic sphere. A modern man not only aims of a change but also thinks that change should be brought up by him. Modern society aims for a secular society. It is against communalism and promotes democracy. In a secular society, no religion is given more or less preference but is kept away from state.
It can be overall that modernisation is overall helpful for the development of society but it sets high standards for people to meet which only the upper strata can meet easily. Sometimes people in meeting their desires go beyond their abilities which causes decline in development. So modernisation should be applied after a good research and in a healthy way so that every society of a country can develop. Then only a country can evolve on an overall basis.